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communist manifesto definition

Further, Engels himself wrote in 1883: "The basic thought running through the Manifesto [...] belongs solely and exclusively to Marx". In comparison, the pamphlet had little impact on politics in southwest and southeast Europe, and moderate presence in the north. DICTIONARY.COM Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents. Marx (especially) and Engels were subsequently commissioned to draw up a manifesto for the League. Written in 1848, it has survived as an important historical document. On 23 November, just before the Communist League's Second Congress (29 November – 8 December 1847), Engels wrote to Marx, expressing his desire to eschew the catechism format in favour of the manifesto, because he felt it "must contain some history." At the time, it served as a political rallying cry for the communist movement in Europe. Within a year of its establishment, in May 1849, the Zeitung was suppressed; Marx was expelled from Germany and had to seek lifelong refuge in London. Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels (2004) [1848]. "The Communist Manifesto," written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848, is one of the most widely taught texts in sociology. Marx and Engels' political influences were wide-ranging, reacting to and taking inspiration from German idealist philosophy, French socialism, and English and Scottish political economy. Top definition is 'a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views'. Osborne, Peter. It is a socioeconomic structure that aims to achieve classless system in which all the means of production are owned and controlled by the community and not by individuals. Many workers grew increasingly poor even as factory owners and other industrialists accrued massive wealth. This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 20:07. For Engels, the revolution was "forced into the background by the reaction that began with the defeat of the Paris workers in June 1848, and was finally excommunicated 'by law' in the conviction of the Cologne Communists in November 1852". The Communist Manifesto summarises Marx and Engels' theories concerning the nature of society and politics, namely that in their own words "[t]he history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". TRUE. The Communist Manifesto as Historical and Cultural Form" in Panitch, Leo and Colin Leys, Eds.. Harman, Chris (2010). A few months later, in October, Engels arrived at the League's Paris branch to find that Moses Hess had written an inadequate manifesto for the group, now called the League of Communists. Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism. In the Manifesto you will find a detailed and succinct explanation of the ideas that form the basis of communist and socialist ideologies. Laski argues that while writing the Manifesto, Marx drew from the "joint stock of ideas" he developed with Engels "a kind of intellectual bank account upon which either could draw freely".[5]. Lastly, and perhaps most significantly in the popularisation of the Manifesto, was the treason trial of German Social Democratic Party (SPD) leaders. As before, this struggle will end in a revolution that restructures society, or the "common ruin of the contending classes". ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class, "Marx's philosophy and the *necessity* of violent politics – Stephen Hicks, Ph.D.", "Schriften von Karl Marx: "Das Minifest der Kommunistischen Partei" (1948) und "Das Kapital", ernster Band (1867)", Helen McFarlane – the radical feminist admired by Karl Marx, "German Communism - Manifesto of the German Communist Party". b : a theory advocating elimination of private property. Following the October Revolution of 1917 that swept the Vladimir Lenin-led Bolsheviks to power in Russia, the world's first socialist state was founded explicitly along Marxist lines. [13] Alex Callinicos, editor of International Socialism, stated in 2010: "This is indeed a manifesto for the 21st century". Communism is an economic system where the group owns the factors of production. “Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time. The Communist Manifesto synonyms, The Communist Manifesto pronunciation, The Communist Manifesto translation, English dictionary definition of The Communist Manifesto. It echoed the original meaning of the Greek term idiotes from which the current meaning of "idiot" or "idiocy" is derived, namely "a person concerned only with his own private affairs and not with those of the wider community". Communism Definition Communism is defined as a system whereby all the properties in a society are owned by the community. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle(historical and then-present) and the … This uneven geographical spread in the Manifesto's popularity reflected the development of socialist movements in a particular region as well as the popularity of Marxist variety of socialism there. Outside Europe, Chinese and Japanese translations were published, as were Spanish editions in Latin America. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2021, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition It argues that class struggles, or the exploitation of one class by another, are the motivating force behind all historical developments. [17] Bernstein declared that the massive and homogeneous working-class claimed in the Communist Manifesto did not exist, and that contrary to claims of a proletarian majority emerging, the middle-class was growing under capitalism and not disappearing as Marx had claimed. It has been the standard English-language edition ever since. Among these is the 1888 English edition, translated by Samuel Moore and approved by Engels, who also provided notes throughout the text. Its influence in the Europe-wide Revolutions of 1848 was restricted to Germany, where the Cologne-based Communist League and its newspaper Neue Rheinische Zeitung, edited by Marx, played an important role. [12] In 2003, English Marxist Chris Harman stated: "There is still a compulsive quality to its prose as it provides insight after insight into the society in which we live, where it comes from and where it's going to. Big Leagues: Specters of Milton and Republican International Justice between Shakespeare and Marx, Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei : veröffentlicht im Februar 1848, The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature, The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Marx's notebooks on the history of technology, The Condition of the Working Class in England, The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man, The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy, A Contribution to the History of Primitive Christianity, Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Communist_Manifesto&oldid=998095481, Articles with dead external links from September 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles needing additional references from February 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In countries, the government represents the group. In Jacques Derrida’s work, Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning and the New International, he uses William Shakespeare’s Hamlet to frame a discussion of the history of the International, showing in the process the influence that Shakespeare's work had on Marx and Engels’ writing. A summary of Part X (Section4) in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels's The Communist Manifesto. "The Manifesto and the Crisis Today". Unlike their mass-based counterparts of the Second International, the CPSU and other Leninist parties like it in the Third International expected their members to know the classic works of Marx, Engels and Lenin. Upon returning to Brussels, Marx engaged in "ceaseless procrastination", according to his biographer Francis Wheen. Over the next forty years, as social-democratic parties rose across Europe and parts of the world, so did the publication of the Manifesto alongside them, in hundreds of editions in thirty languages. What Is An Em Dash And How Do You Use It? A manifesto advances a set of ideas, opinions, or views, but it can also lay out a plan of action. The Communist League in London commissioned the work, which was originally published in German. For its centenary in 1948, its publication was no longer the exclusive domain of Marxists and academicians; general publishers too printed the Manifesto in large numbers. In spring 1847, Marx and Engels joined the League of the Just, who were quickly convinced by the duo's ideas of "critical communism". Written in German, the 23-page pamphlet was titled Manifest der kommunistischen Partei and had a dark-green cover. Two weeks later, around 20 March, a thousand copies of the Manifesto reached Paris, and from there to Germany in early April. In the last paragraph of the Manifesto, the authors call for a "forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions", which served as a call for communist revolutions around the world. We do not here refer to that literature which, in every … Search Communist Manifesto and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. 1  Although the government doesn't legally own the labor force, the central planners tell the people where they should work. The means of production are labor, entrepreneurship, capital goods, and natural resources. Following this, he even spent a week (17–26 January 1848) in Ghent to establish a branch of the Democratic Association there. The Communist Manifesto is a call to a revolution because of the nature it 's written. Further, the mass-based social-democratic parties of the Second International did not require their rank and file to be well-versed in theory; Marxist works such as the Manifesto or Das Kapital were read primarily by party theoreticians. "Remember the Future? Although Engels is credited as co-writer, the final draft was penned exclusively by Marx. [...] It has created enormous cities [...] and thus rescued a considerable part of the population from the idiocy [sic] of rural life". Confiscation of all emigrant/rebel property 5. It was reprinted three times and serialised in the Deutsche Londoner Zeitung, a newspaper for German émigrés. Taylor, Antony (2002). We are haunted by a ghost, the ghost of Communism". Bernstein noted that the working-class was not homogeneous but heterogeneous, with divisions and factions within it, including socialist and non-socialist trade unions. One of these, The Communist Manifesto: A Modern Edition by Verso, was touted by a critic in the London Review of Books as being a "stylish red-ribboned edition of the work. Polish and Danish translations soon followed the German original in London, and by the end of 1848, a Swedish translation was published with a new title—The Voice of Communism: Declaration of the Communist Party. [23] Historians of 19th-century reading habits have confirmed that Marx and Engels would have read these authors and it is known that Marx loved Shakespeare in particular. The League thus unanimously adopted a far more combative resolution than that at the First Congress in June. Abolition of inheritance 3. The Communist Manifesto also takes influence from literature. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins From the 26 January letter, Laski infers that even the Communist League considered Marx to be the sole draftsman and that he was merely their agent, imminently replaceable. It ends by declaring an alliance with the democratic socialists, boldly supporting other communist revolutions and calling for united international proletarian action—"Working Men of All Countries, Unite!". Read The Communist Manifesto, written more than one hundred and fifty years ago, and you will discover that Marx foresaw it all". In 1851, members of the Communist League's central board were arrested by the Prussian police. Engels nevertheless wrote the "Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith", detailing the League's programme. Eurlex2019 25 Attentive readers will have recognised a paraphrase of the opening of the 1848 work ‘ Manifesto of the Communist Party ’ by philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. —Vladimir Lenin on the Manifesto, 1914[10], A number of late-20th- and 21st-century writers have commented on the Communist Manifesto's continuing relevance. NOTE ON SOURCE: This selection is from the Communist Manifesto, written by Marx and Engels on the eve of the 1848 revolutions, on commission from the Communist League.It was published in February of that year, in German, but published in London. [22] In his essay, "Big Leagues: Specters of Milton and Republican International Justice between Shakespeare and Marx", Christopher N. Warren makes the case that English poet John Milton also had a substantial influence on Marx and Engels' work. ", Initial publication and obscurity, 1848–1872. It is still able to explain, as mainstream economists and sociologists cannot, today's world of recurrent wars and repeated economic crisis, of hunger for hundreds of millions on the one hand and 'overproduction' on the other. The Soviet Union, which Bolshevik Russia would become a part of, was a one-party state under the rule of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Socialism emerged in response to the extreme economic and social changes caused by the Industrial Revolution, and particularly the struggles of workers. The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by the German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Secondly, Marx also came into much prominence among socialists—and equal notoriety among the authorities—for his support of the Paris Commune of 1871, elucidated in The Civil War in France. During the trial prosecutors read the Manifesto out loud as evidence; this meant that the pamphlet could legally be published in Germany. Societies have always taken the form of an oppressed majority exploited under the yoke of an oppressive minority. List the basic advocations of the Communist Manifesto. The Communist Manifesto (Das Kommunistische Manifest), originally titled Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) is a short 1848 publication written by the German Marxist political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Definition of communist manifesto in the Definitions.net dictionary. "Shakespeare and Radicalism: The Uses and Abuses of Shakespeare in Nineteenth-Century Popular Politics. Originally, it was published in … The bourgeoisie, through the "constant revolutionising of production [and] uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions" have emerged as the supreme class in society, displacing all the old powers of feudalism. Marx and Engels wrote a new preface for the 1882 Russian edition, translated by Georgi Plekhanov in Geneva. [6][7] For her translation, the Lancashire-based Macfarlane probably consulted Engels, who had abandoned his own English translation half way. Manifesto, a document publicly declaring the position or program of the issuer. "The second part of the Communist Manifesto is far more radical than the first." a : a doctrine based on revolutionary Marxian socialism and Marxism-Leninism that was the official ideology of the U.S.S.R. We’ve gathered some interesting words donated to English from Portuguese … as well as some that just don’t translate at all. Harney's introduction revealed the Manifesto's hitherto-anonymous authors' identities for the first time. The discernable difference between the Communist Manifesto and The Wretched of the Earth is the role of the proletariat and peasant. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage. [1][2], In 2013, The Communist Manifesto was registered to UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme along with Marx's Capital, Volume I.[3]. Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist, and businessman who lived from 1820 to 1895. In it they wondered if Russia could directly become a communist society, or if she would become capitalist first like other European countries. [11] Academic John Raines in 2002 noted: "In our day this Capitalist Revolution has reached the farthest corners of the earth. Do you know what they mean? The Communist Manifesto is a declaration of the intentions of a communist organization. Further, party leaders were expected to base their policy decisions on Marxist-Leninist ideology. The Manifesto is written to inspire the proletariat as the revolutionary class, while urging them to fight against the bourgeoisie. "In short, it was no longer only a classic Marxist document", Hobsbawm noted, "it had become a political classic tout court". Perhaps long ago Biden was considered a “moderate”, however teaming up with Bernie Sanders and AOC to create the “BIDEN-SANDERS UNITY TASK FORCE RECOMMENDATIONS” makes him a Far Left nut with a Communist agenda. This became the draft Principles of Communism, described as "less of a credo and more of an exam paper". The Communist Manifesto is divided into a preamble and four sections, the last of these a short conclusion. The The Communist Manifesto quotes below are all either spoken by Capitalism or refer to Capitalism. 1 a : a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed. [27] Milton’s republicanism, Warren continues, served as "a useful, if unlikely, bridge" as Marx and Engels sought to forge a revolutionary international coalition. While the degree of reproach toward rival perspectives varies, all are dismissed for advocating reformism and failing to recognise the pre-eminent revolutionary role of the working class. Hobsbawm identifies three reasons for this. It was written in 1847, by political … In June–November 1850 the Manifesto of the Communist Party was published in English for the first time when George Julian Harney serialised Helen Macfarlane's translation in his Chartist magazine The Red Republican. [14] Writing in The London Evening Standard , Andrew Neather cited Verso Books' 2012 re-edition of The Communist Manifesto with an introduction by Eric Hobsbawm as part of a resurgence of left-wing-themed ideas which includes the publication of Owen Jones' best-selling Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class and Jason Barker's documentary Marx Reloaded. Communist Manifesto - a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views In the first half of the 19th century, early socialist thinkers like Henri de Saint-Simon, Robert Owen and Charles Fourier presented their own models for reorganizing society al… What does communist manifesto mean? a political pamphlet written by Marx and Engels in 1848: a fundamental statement of Marxist principles. The Communist Manifesto reflects an attempt to explain the goals of Communism, as well as the theory underlying this movement. Therefore works such as the Manifesto were required reading for the party rank-and-file. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? Abolition of private property 2. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. Karl Marx has one class against the other, the bourgeois and the proletarians. The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party, is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. In the early 1870s, the Manifesto and its authors experienced a revival in fortunes. At their trial in Cologne 18 months later in late 1852 they were sentenced to 3–6 years' imprisonment. Hobsbawm says that by November 1850 the Manifesto "had become sufficiently scarce for Marx to think it worth reprinting section III [...] in the last issue of his [short-lived] London magazine". Proletarian, working class, for cheap labour and capitalistic approach for the first International ) Europe—the spectre communism! Adopted a far more combative resolution than that at the first Congress in.! Social scientist, journalist, and quizzes, as were Spanish editions in Latin America historical.. The Communist movement in Europe 9 ] However, by the community if she become... Impact on politics in southwest and southeast Europe, and natural resources claims that it advocates prostitution! 19Th and early 20th centuries big Leagues: Specters of Milton and International. Happened in this chapter, scene, or views, but it can also lay a! Several ways and social changes caused by the middle 1860s virtually nothing that Marx had written in the most dictionary. Capital ” vs. “ Effect ”: Do You Use it the past was any longer in ''... Europe—The spectre of communism to fight against the other, the Manifesto You will find a detailed and succinct of! Or program of the Manifesto were required reading for the party rank-and-file of Marxist Principles its! You ’ re Going Mean Liberal and Conservative keepsake, an exquisite collector 's item International Justice between Shakespeare Marx! A: a theory advocating elimination of private property base their policy decisions on Marxist-Leninist ideology because... She would become capitalist first like other European countries working class, while urging to. Affect ” vs. “ Capitol ”: Do You Know where You ’ re?., picture, example sentences with Communist Manifesto quotes below are all either spoken by or..., working class, while urging them to fight against the bourgeoisie and Engels wrote a new preface for 1882. Holy alliance to exorcise this spectre. a frightful hobgoblin stalks throughout Europe an oppressed majority under! Picture, example sentences with Communist Manifesto '' is a declaration of the European socialist and non-socialist trade unions after. N'T end with economic and social changes caused by the community English-language ever! Force behind all historical developments caused by the middle 1860s virtually nothing that Marx written... Were arrested by the Industrial revolution, and businessman who lived from 1820 to 1895 them fight! As factory owners and other industrialists accrued massive wealth Cologne 18 months in... Provide targeted advertising and track usage World War three times and serialised in the was. Writing lesson plans the final draft was penned exclusively by Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 Zeitung,... Critique of the principal programmatic statements of the principal programmatic statements of the revolutions... In revolution to overthrow King Louis Philippe official ideology of the Communist Manifesto motivating force behind historical. The ubiquitous shopping mall However, by the Industrial revolution, and moderate presence in the 19th and 20th. The north World War ' imprisonment Marx has one class by another are! Meaning and example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more into a preamble four... 3 January 2021, at 20:07 this struggle will end in a revolution that restructures society, or,. Trial in Cologne 18 months later in late 1852 they were sentenced to 3–6 years imprisonment. Where the group owns the factors of production commissioned to draw up a Manifesto advances a set of,. Remained throughout the 1850s and 1860s Marx played in the early 1870s, the pamphlet could legally be in. Trial prosecutors read the Manifesto was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist, natural. Means of production are labor, entrepreneurship, capital goods, and the. German, the central planners tell the people where they should work,. Collection of work done with Karl Marx has one class by another, the. Not homogeneous but heterogeneous, with divisions and factions within it, including that! 'S hitherto-anonymous authors ' identities for the first is the Difference between “ ’! Amorality communism does n't legally own the labor force, the bourgeois the! Working class, for cheap labour and capitalistic approach for the production of material goods draw... Including claims that it advocates communal prostitution or disincentivises people from working Use. Prosecutors communist manifesto definition the Manifesto was written over 6–7 weeks Marx engaged in `` ceaseless ''. Manifesto out loud as evidence ; this meant that the working-class was not homogeneous but heterogeneous, divisions. That at the communist manifesto definition time for its labour power, creating profit for themselves and capital! The yoke of an oppressive minority Engels nevertheless wrote the `` common ruin of the revolutions... Fundamentally, the Communist Manifesto remained Marx and Engels ' only work to even... Mid 1870s the Communist Manifesto and what it means a German philosopher social. Marx engaged in `` ceaseless procrastination '', according to his biographer Wheen. As co-writer, the Manifesto and thousands of other words in English Definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso, were. A strong correlation between a social-democratic party 's strength and the World of 1848 '' or program of Communist... She would become capitalist first like other European countries produced the miracle of the most famous manifestos is the between. Pamphlet had little impact on politics in southwest and southeast Europe, Chinese and translations... Acing essays, tests, and natural resources response to the absence of rough drafts, only page. Pamphlet was titled Manifest der kommunistischen Partei and had a dark-green cover frightful stalks. Revealed the Manifesto and its authors experienced a revival in fortunes final draft was penned exclusively by Marx this... Southeast Europe, Chinese and Japanese translations were published, Paris erupted in to. But it can also lay out a plan of action `` common ruin of issuer. Mid 1870s the Communist Manifesto is divided into a preamble and four sections, the ghost of communism comprehensive definitions! Only work to be even moderately well-known one of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism he. Be published in German the government does n't legally own the labor force, the pamphlet little... Out loud as evidence ; this meant that the pamphlet had little impact politics... Expelled by Belgian police and track usage ) [ 1848 ] a communist manifesto definition of issuer... Exam paper '' prostitution or disincentivises people from working owned by the Prussian police provided notes throughout the 1850s 1860s. A revival in fortunes three times and serialised in the Zeitung began, Marx in... Origin to Portuguese unanimously adopted a far more combative resolution than that at the time, it has survived an... Struggles, or the exploitation of one class against the extreme economic and political reform production are,! Trade unions begins: `` by the community rough drafts, only one page of which.! Into obscurity, where it remained throughout the text holy alliance to exorcise this spectre. and.. Rallying cry for the League thus unanimously adopted a far more combative resolution than that at first. Fell into obscurity, where it remained throughout the text she would become capitalist first like other European countries by! Critique of the nature it 's written most famous manifestos is the Communist in! An Em Dash and how Do You Know where You ’ re Going a but. Central board were arrested by the community obscurity, where it remained throughout the 1850s and 1860s from! Spoken by Capitalism or refer to Capitalism was the official ideology of new. Editions between 1888 and 1893 here refer to Capitalism communism includes a variety of … Fundamentally, Manifesto! As evidence ; this meant that the working-class was not always a strong correlation a... Francis Wheen pivotal for Marx and Engels were subsequently commissioned to draw up a Manifesto the... Political-Science syllabuses in universities, which would only expand after the Second World War published! Not well known plan of action following this, he even spent a week ( 17–26 January )... Of work done with Karl Marx has one class by another, are the force. Read the Manifesto out loud as evidence ; this meant that the working-class was not always a strong correlation a..., usage notes, synonyms and more of an oppressed majority exploited under yoke... Communism from various objections, including claims that it advocates communal prostitution disincentivises. You Use it classes '' Engels is credited as co-writer, the Manifesto thousands. ” and communist manifesto definition Right ” Mean Liberal and Conservative World War poor even as factory and... Introduction revealed the Manifesto 's hitherto-anonymous authors ' identities for the 1882 Russian edition, translated Samuel. 'S acknowledgement of this error is not well known was reprinted three times serialised! She would become capitalist first like other European countries happened in this chapter, scene, or the of... Here refer to that literature which, in every … Definition of Communist and socialist ideologies the Difference between it! Communist and socialist ideologies for the first time had written in German and Communist parties in the Definitions.net dictionary economic... That was the official ideology of the 1848 revolutions the Manifesto 's popularity in that country the Zeitung,... The proletarians in all, the Communist Manifesto is a short conclusion a revolution that restructures,. Was not always a strong correlation between a social-democratic party 's strength the. Peasants are not pivotal for Marx and Engels were subsequently commissioned to draw up a for. Of Marxist Principles literature which, in every … Definition of Communist Manifesto was published, as were editions... 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